The Department of Military Science offers students from all disciplines within the university the opportunity to study the following subjects: leadership theory and practice; management of time, personnel, and materiel; ethics; the role and responsibility of the military in contemporary society; and the philosophy and practice of military strategy and tactics. First-year and sophomore-level courses are open to all Duke students and do not require full participation in the Army ROTC program. The leadership laboratory provides students a unique and dynamic hands-on leadership experience in addition to an opportunity to put military skills and tactics into practice. The laboratory is offered as an optional course for nonprogram students enrolled in the freshman courses. It is mandatory each semester for contracted cadets (both scholarship and nonscholarship) and for students who intend to contract or to apply for a scholarship. Advanced courses are open only to qualified ROTC cadets.